"Chaplaincy. Part 1"
"Sowing the Word of God, so all might be saved."
Luke 4:18,19.ESV.

"The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because He has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. 
He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, 
to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor."

Luke 4:18,19.ESV.

"The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because He has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor."

The following paper is research which I did on the various offices within the chaplain discipline, as well as, a brief history of how the office came to be.
 

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
 
 
 
Research Paper. Part 1
 
 
 
Submitted to Michael C. Whittington, D.Min.
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of
 
 
 
CHPL 500
Introduction to Chaplaincy Ministry
 
 
by
 
Marvin L. Smith
L23806414
July 5, 201
 
Contents
 
Introduction and Thesis                                                                                                          2
Military Chaplaincy                                                                                                                4
Health-Care Chaplaincy                                                                                                          5
Workplace Chaplaincy                                                                                                            6
Correctional and Prison Chaplaincy                                                                                       7
Sports Chaplaincy                                                                                                                   7
First Responders Chaplaincy                                                                                                  8
College Campus Chaplaincy                                                                                                   8
Bibliography                                                                                                                           10
 
 
 
 

 
Thesis: There are seven distinctive areas of specialty within the discipline of chaplaincy; however, whichever specialty one chooses, (s)he must be ever-present of the scriptural reference as found in the Book of Luke, Chapter Four.
            We are informed about the roots of chaplaincy being engraved and exemplified throughout ancient times. Paget and McCormack explains, “Religious men and women often accompanied armies into battle as priests. Chaplains sailed with Sir Francis Drake in the sixteenth century and fought with George Washington during the Revolutionary War. They have counseled and consulted for kings, parliaments, and governments-for the incarcerated, the sick, and the disenfranchised.”[1] We see, from the above-list of assignments, a chaplain can perform many pursuits within the discipline; so, as we continue to explore this exciting spiritual calling, more will be revealed pertaining to the many descriptions which are characteristic of the duties within the ranks of a chaplain.
            I noted above, some of the types of duties a chaplain could very well perform; however, of interest to me at this point in my discussion, is how the etymological aspects of the word, chaplain, came to be in the English language. Early church history explained that the word, chaplain, had its genesis upon the noble and friendly act of a Christian bishop. “The word chaplain comes from the early history of the Christian church. Traditionally, a story relates the compassion of a fourth century holy man named Martin who shared his cloak with a beggar.”[2] We are further told of how, after the bishop, Bishop Martin, died, his coat, “(capella in Latin) was enshrined as a reminder of the sacred act of compassion. The guardian of the capella became known as the chaplain, which transliterated into English became chaplain.[3] It’s interesting how God can take a seemingly minute act of kindness, and use it for the glory and purpose of building His Kingdom! Bishop Martin, through his act of kindness began the model work of the chaplain, which is followed even today. “In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven.” (Matt 5:16.ESV)
            While Bishop Martin began the work of the chaplain as we know it, “The primary legal basis for the existence of chaplaincy in the United States is the common denominator supporting the ‘free exercise’ ‘clause’ in the First Amendment.”[4] This portion of the First Amendment is concerned with the freedom to worship in the United States. It reads as thus, “The Free Exercise Clause reserves the right of American citizens to accept any religious belief and engage in religious rituals…The clause protects not just religious beliefs but actions made on behalf of those beliefs. More importantly, the wording of state constitutions suggest that ‘free exercise’ envisions religiously compelled exemptions from at least some generally applicable laws.”[5] That’s a mouthful; however, its importance should not be overlooked because it paved the opening to the codification of how the chaplain might operate within, particularly, the Armed Forces. “…in the 1980s a Jewish army chaplain helped define the ministry of chaplains by clearly stating that the chaplain’s purpose was to provide for the free exercise of religion for everyone in the command, not just the people who were of the same faith tradition as the chaplain.”[6]
            At this point in my discussion of the Office of Chaplaincy, I would like to center my thoughts to seven distinct types of disciplines of chaplaincy one might engage in: 1) Military Chaplaincy; 2) Health-care Chaplaincy; 3) Workplace Chaplaincy; 4) Correctional and Prison Chaplaincy; 5) Sports Chaplaincy; 6) First Responder Chaplaincy; 7) College Campus Chaplaincy. It is important to note that many of the duties may overlap within each discipline; however, the basis for the distinctiveness of each disciplines still remains virtually in effect.
Military Chaplaincy
The Military Chaplain, once again, set the status quo for the notion of ministering to others across religious and denominational boundaries. However, when one considers the military chaplain discipline, (s)he generally is referring to one of the Armed Forces branches; such as, Army; Marines; Air Force; Navy; Coast Guard; Reserves. However, entrance into a branch of the military is based upon one’s religious endorser, primarily. “The religious endorser [one’s religious church and/or governing body] puts your application into the military.”[7] Under the duties of a chaplain who serves the military, one has several categories (s)he may have to fulfill. These include: Credential Religious Leader; Commissioned Officers (Accessions); Chaplain Candidacy; Active Chaplain Duty; Unique Factors. For the sake of time and space in this discussion, I would like to place spotlight on two: Commissioned Officers (Accessions); Unique Factor.
When one considers entering the military as a chaplain, “…there are federal –and branch-specific criteria to be met. That is because the military chaplains are also commissioned officers serving in a tightly structured, legalistic, and hierarchically ordered system that is ultimately controlled by the United States Congress. As such, these chaplains must meet federal entry-level and continuing employment criteria for officers. These involve age, medical, educational and physical requirements.”[8] The Accessions process involves being an officer in the military.” That means chaplains receive direct commissions as officers without the necessity of going to a military academy or an officer candidate commissioning program, or being in the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) during their undergraduate schooling.”[9]
With respect to Unique Factors which are associated with Military Chaplains, “Chaplains have the legal distinction of being the only military personnel who hold total, legal privileged communication for their clients.”          
Health-Care Chaplaincy
         With reference to the Health-Care Chaplaincy, its genesis was begun in the 1920s, and within this sector, one may find chaplains within and without the hospital environment.[10] With reference to those chaplains who serve within the hospital environment, “…om this age of medical specializations, chaplains have learned to specialize as well. They may become chaplaincy experts in medical specialties as diverse as emergency care, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, intensive care, obstetrics, neonatal, reconstructive and cosmetic surgery, burn medicine, infectious diseases-and even acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as a specialty within a specialty.”[11] Furthermore, within the realms of Health-Care Chaplaincy, one usually is required to have, “…extensive education and experience, as well as denominational endorsement.”[12]
Workplace Chaplaincy
The Workplace Chaplain has its roots in the 1640s, “…it was being implemented by the Massachusetts Bay Colony for employees who were required to work on Sundays.”[13] One may find the Workplace Chaplain in practically every field of the workforce spectrum. Paget and McCormack explains, “Most people spend more hours at their workplace than in any other single location. It seems reasonable then, that when people face crises or significant changes in their lives, their work will be directly impacted.”[14] Paget and McCormack further tell us how the many trials and tribulations one may face within life, may adversely affect one’s performance on the job. “Distress and emotional upheaval affect concentration, productivity, or working relationships. Some unique issues workplace chaplains may face include layoffs, restructuring, buyouts and mergers, retirements, downsizing, and difficult deadlines.”[15] Furthermore, Whittington shares of how the Workplace Chaplain should be present among the workers, as not to appear as a part of ‘The Management;’ as such, he explains how relationships are often built before a crisis is present.[16]
Correctional and Prison Chaplaincy
While the Workplace Chaplain deals with workers within a corporate environment, The Correctional and Prison Chaplain ministers to those who are incarcerated within the jail environment. “Spiritual care to the incarcerated is probably as established as the institutions of incarceration themselves…As early as June 1886, a group of prison chaplains officially affiliated with the American Correctional Association, which recognized the value of religion and spirituality in the correctional process.”[17] I personally can remember once when I was living deeply in sin, and I was incarcerated for approximately fifteen days for selling a student’s books, and while the embarrassment of the entire incident was humbling, being locked up for those fifteen days afforded me to be in position to receive the Word of God through singing and preaching of a chaplain.
The requirements for Correctional and Prison Chaplaincy is governed by The Federal Department of Corrections and some of these include: less than 37 years old; financial, employment and criminal suitability; physical standards, such as the passing of drug and physical abilities test.[18] A suitable scriptural reference for the Prison Chaplain is found in Luke when Jesus, Himself proclaimed, “’The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because He has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.” (Luke 4:18,19.ESV)
Sports Chaplaincy
The field of Sports Chaplaincy is one which is of particular interest to me. “Many become chaplains because they love a particular sport, they have ‘insider status’ as an athlete, or they are workers in a sport or recreational arena.”[19]  The gifting from God in a particular sport is important and exciting to me. “Athletes gain fame and wealth, often at a very young age when they may not have the experience or wisdom to handle such notoriety. Chaplains have often found that athletes need and welcome spiritual care, support, and intervention-especially since a large public is in awe of them.”[20]
First Responders Chaplaincy
First Responder Chaplains serve many people, in various capacities and usually in an environment which is of utmost emergency and/or concern. Their world is, “of high stress, danger, and uncertainty…First responders include law enforcement, firefighters, paramedics, and disaster relief personnel.”[21] I am certain a chaplain serving in this discipline would have to encompass qualities which would assist them in enduring crises back-to-back.
College Campus Chaplaincy
The College Campus Chaplain’s goal is, “…to provide a place for students, staff, and faculty to connect to one another and to the greater community on a spiritual or religious level.”[22] The genesis of the College Campus Chaplaincy ministry began in 1806. “…one of the most famous events in the history of student societies was the ‘haystack prayer meeting’ at Williams College. Soon ecumenically organized Christian associations, led by laity, became the forerunners of campus ministry.”[23] On the whole, it is the intent of the College Campus Chaplain to, “seek to provide a place for students, staff, and faculty to connect to one another and to the greater community on a spiritual or religious level.”[24]
           Overall, no matter what discipline one chooses to explore within the discipline of chaplaincy, I believe the scriptural reference as found in Titus should be sought as the model. It tells us,
If anyone is above reproach, the husband of one wife, and his children are believers and not open to the charge of debauchery or insubordination. For an overseer, as God’s steward, must be above reproach. He must not be arrogant or quick-tempered or a drunkard or violent or greedy for gain, but hospitable, a lover of good, self-controlled, upright, holy, and disciplined. He must hold firm to the trustworthy word as taught, so that he may be able to give instruction in sound doctrine and also to rebuke those who contradict it. (Titus 1:6-9.ESV)
 
                                                                                      

 
Bibliography
 Paget, Naomi K. and McCormack, Janet R., The Work of the Chaplain
(Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press)
https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/free_exercise_clause, Accessed July 5, 2015.
Whittington, Michael C.  D.MIN., CHPL500, Week 1, Presentation: Types of Chaplaincy Ministry, accessed July 5, 2015, Corporate Chaplain, https://learn.liberty.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_223764_1&content_id=_8033013_1
 
 
 
 
           
 
[1] Naomi K. Paget and Janet R. McCormack, The Work of the Chaplain (
Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 2002), 6.
[2] Ibid, 2.
[3]Ibid, 2,3.
[4] Naomi K. Paget and Janet R. McCormack, The Work of the Chaplain
(Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 2002), 4.
[6] Naomi K. Paget and Janet R. McCormack, The Work of the Chaplain
(Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 2002), 4.
[7] Michael C. Whittington, D.MIN., CHPL500, Week 1, Presentation: Types of Chaplaincy Ministry, accessed July 5, 2015, https://learn.liberty.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_223764_1&content_id=_8033013_1
[8] Naomi K. Paget and Janet R. McCormack, The Work of the Chaplain
(Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 2002), 37.
[9] Ibid, 38.
[10] Ibid, 47.
[11] Ibid, 47.
[12] Ibid, 48.
[13] Naomi K. Paget and Janet R. McCormack, The Work of the Chaplain
(Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 2002), 55.
[14]Ibid, 55.
[15] Ibid, 55.
[16] Michael C. Whittington, D.MIN., CHPL500, Week 1, Presentation: Types of Chaplaincy Ministry, accessed July 5, 2015, Corporate Chaplain, https://learn.liberty.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_223764_1&content_id=_8033013_1
[17] Naomi K. Paget and Janet R. McCormack, The Work of the Chaplain
(Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 2002), 61.
[18] Ibid, 63.
[19] Naomi K. Paget and Janet R. McCormack, The Work of the Chaplain
(Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 2002), 89.
[20] Ibid, 90.
[21] Ibid, 68.
[22] Ibid, 87.
[23] Naomi K. Paget and Janet R. McCormack, The Work of the Chaplain
(Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 2002), 86.
[24]Ibid, 87.
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